How to Build IoT Projects

By: Anatolii Kramarenko, COO
20 Feb. 2023
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The Internet of things IoT has successfully infiltrated various sectors of our life – from manufacturing to smart home systems. The technology is one of the most used today, and its growth has accelerated along with its capabilities. The future scope seems optimistic, as over 24 billion IoT devices are expected in 2030 the global market. The industry is rather than perspective both for businesses and developers. And this is the right time to learn and get started with IoT.

This article contains exciting project ideas, which you can build on your own to get hands-on experience. Examples below range from simple networks of connected physical objects to advanced ones. That’s why they are of interest to beginners and experienced specialists. All of them are related to different industries, and you’ll definitely find a step-by-step guide that will engage you.

IoT Projects in Healthcare

IoT-enabled devices made a revolution in the healthcare sector, as in other ones. Thanks to them, remote monitoring of patients’ conditions became possible. It affected the quality of medical services, helping to keep people safe and healthy. You’ll know how to build IoT projects for doctors and their patients from this block.

Wearable Posture Detection Project Tutorial

A sedentary lifestyle and office work are one of the most common problems of our generation. However, lots of us underestimate the poor posture health effects. In addition to notorious back pain, people suffer from joint degeneration, muscle fatigue, and headache. It also affects emotional health. And the first IoT project from our list is a system to improve posture.

Connected devices can measure the limits of muscle stretchability and any strain it creates. The application will display sensor data if strain exceeds the set threshold limit. And then collected, data save on a smartphone by connecting through Bluetooth. This IoT project can be helpful not only for the healthcare sector but for fitness, either.

Patient Health Monitoring System

In case when it’s difficult for doctors to be present everywhere they are needed, real-time health condition monitoring systems have become critical recently. Smart devices have been integrated into health experts’ work for a long time. But their impact on this industry and rapid development never cease to amaze us.

Today’s IoT-based health monitoring systems have a long list of features. But let’s see a simple example of a project that can monitor essential health indicators – body temperature and heartbeat rate. This network of connected devices is impossible without a Wi-Fi module, temperature, and pulse rate sensors. Collected data are recorded over ThingSpeak and Google sheets and then sent to a doctor. Moreover, patients can use a special button in case of an emergency. Using it, they will send a message to their specialist or relatives.

Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation Measurement

Since the COVID-19 pandemic has changed people’s lifestyles all over the world, regular monitoring of heart rate and SpO2 has become crucial. And developers have come up with a testing kit that even beginners can build. It includes an Adafruit OLED Display, Arduino UNO, buzzer, pulse oximeter, and heart rate monitor.

As you can see, this IoT project is simple to implement at home. It is suitable for the early detection of COVID-19 and regular testing.

IoT Platforms for Smart Homes

IoT technology is transforming how people manage and interact with their homes. Thermostats, appliances, lighting, and TVs connected to IoT platforms have become a norm for many of us. Below are some exciting ideas for smart homes which you can start building yourself.

Smart Door Lock System

Homes should give a sense of security to their residents. But traditional locks with keys don’t always deal with this challenge. Thus, today they’re partly replaced by IoT home automation projects. And one of them is a smart door lock system.

For this IoT network, you will need an Arduino board, an AVR family microcontroller, an ESP8266 Wi-Fi module, a solenoid door lock, and a high-power transistor. So, how does it work? To enter a house, residents need to scan a QR code on the front door and log in using their ID and a password. Then, in case of correctly entered data, the solenoid lock will get triggered, and the door will open.

Smart Plant Monitoring IoT Devices

Our following project tutorial is for plant lovers. Proper care of indoor plants requires regular watering, which can be a problem for busy owners. Remote plant monitor helps to solve this problem. The smart system checks soil condition and alerts when it’s dry and needs water.

This IoT device includes two parts. The first is the moisture sensing system, which detects when potting soil becomes dry. And if a plant requires water, the system sends a signal. Another part consists of a flag on a servo motor and a limit switch. After receiving the signal, the servo motor switch gets triggered, and the flag starts rising to notify house residents about the issue.

Home Automation IoT Project

The IoT-based home automation project resolves to automate the functioning of household appliances over the Internet. As a result, all connected objects can be operated just through a smartphone. In addition to convenience, it allows managing household items from any location.

A touch-based home automation system is required for this IoT project. You will also need Wi-Fi, an AVR family microcontroller, and inbuilt touch-sensing input pins. The microcontroller is integrated with a modem to obtain commands from the user. And the system status is displayed on an LCD screen. When the microcontroller receives an instruction, it processes it and shows the system status on the screen.

The Internet of things for houses can be used for different purposes, like air quality controllers, lawn management, or electricity monitoring. It also has many benefits, including energy efficiency, remote access, and security.

Building IoT projects for Environmental Use

When you know how to build IoT projects for healthcare and housekeeping, it’s time to take up IoT applications for the environment. Experienced developers have already submitted Internet of things solutions for air and water pollution reduction, toxic gas detection, smart agriculture, etc. So, let’s see how IoT hardware and programming languages can impact today’s world.

Smart Water Quality Monitoring

This project is critical in agriculture, as it remotely checks and maintains water quality. Moreover, embedded devices can also monitor soil moisture, pH value, and liquid temperature. To build this IoT platform, you will need a Gravity Analog pH sensor, NodeMCU board for connection to the Internet and data transmission, Arduino UNO, power supply, soil moisture, and temperature sensors with a waterproof casing.

Programming consists of two parts. The first one is for Arduino, and the second is for NodeMCU. At the end of this project tutorial, you will learn about the working of different sensors and the serial communication between compatible microcontrollers.

Air Pollution Monitoring System

Poor air quality across big cities pushes IoT experts to develop software for this environmental problem resolution. Such IoT projects help monitor PPM’s air quality, detect gas leakage and identify toxic gases in the air in real-time. They also save weather data on web servers for later use. Thus, the Internet of things IoT contributes to the worldwide threat, protecting people’s health.

An air pollution monitoring system is one of the most accessible to build IoT projects for beginners. It can benefit the oil and gas, mining, and chemical industries. The major components of this IoT product are MQ135 and MQ6 sensors, which monitor five components of the air quality index. And if the figures drops below a threshold, the network activates an alarm.

Flood Detection IoT Project

Floods are regular in some regions. This natural disaster is always a significant threat to agriculture and property. And the development of early flood-detection electronic devices is critical for risk prevention. This project tutorial guides you in building a system to track natural factors like water level, temperature, and air humidity.

To connect the project components and put them together, you will need a digital temperature humidity sensor and float sensor to monitor the water level constantly. They allow an evaluation of possible flood conditions and wave speed. In addition to this data, understanding an area’s features helps to prepare some shelters in the most secure places.

The Internet of Things in Fitness

It’s time to talk about how to build IoT projects for fitness. Several apps based on this technology have exploded in popularity in recent years. And global events, like pandemics, just speed their development.

Fitness Counter: Project Tutorial

This is a universal application, as it counts reps and sets of basic exercises. The problem this device solves is when you lose track. Let’s see how to build a prototype of a push-up counter using a Kemet pyroelectric sensor and Arduino.

The first step is to set up the Pyro sensor and Arduino. You will also need a 3D printer, Wi-Fi, and Grove shields to add additional sensors. Then you should test the sensor and think about a database to store your progress. And the last step will be Arduino integration. You can also set the sensor on the floor or in front of your legs, depending on the type of exercise.

Bench Press Counter

Our last project tutorial also dedicates to the loss of counting problems in fitness. The device for the bench press counter requires Raspberry Pi and an Ultrasonic sensor. Put the last one in a way to detect the bar going past it. And Python running on the single-board computer will count reps.

Wrapping Up

As you can see, the Internet of things is widely used in various industries, changing them. It can be simple projects with minimal components and big platforms for critical tasks. But the examples above are basic, and any developer with a good knowledge of IoT can easily implement one of these projects.

By: Anatolii Kramarenko, COO
20 Feb. 2023
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